The formation of a clot that interrupts the blood flow characterizes the thrombosis , which can be dangerous to health. The main causes of thrombosis include physical inactivity, drug use, obesity, hereditary diseases or genetic predisposition, in addition to orthopedic fractures.
O CNN Vital Signs this week explains how to prevent thrombosis. The program, presented by cardiologist Roberto Kalil, will air this Sunday (19), at 7:30 pm, reinforcing the diversified content with the brand CNN Soft .
“When we talk about thrombosis, we often associate it with venous thrombosis, which is the formation of clots in the leg veins or any vein in the body, which can cause pulmonary embolism. But thrombosis also includes arterial thrombosis, it is the main cause of death in the world, because it includes heart attack and stroke, which people usually call a stroke”, explains cardiologist Ariane Macedo, director of the Brazilian Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis (watch the interview in the video above ).
Different types of thrombosis
The formation of clots that clog blood vessels and prevent blood flow is called thrombosis. There are two types, venous thrombosis, which affects the veins, and arterial thrombosis, when the blockage occurs in one of the arteries.
According to the angiologist César Amorim Neves, President of the Bahian Medicine Association (ABM), the formation of venous thrombosis is associated with three preponderant factors: blood hypercoagulation, lesions in the walls of the veins and immobilization of patients.
Hypercoagulation, a condition that favors the formation of blood clots, can be related to different causes. Among them are genetic predisposition, changes in the amount or functioning of blood proteins that control clotting, such as protein C, S or Z deficiency, among other disorders.
“Another factor responsible for venous thrombosis is damage to the vessel wall. The vessel is formed by substances that prevent clotting. Sometimes, lesions on the vessel walls alter these substances and lead to clot formation”, explains César.
Finally, long-term immobilization is also an important factor in the formation of thrombosis. People who remain hospitalized for long periods in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) may have an increased risk of developing the disease.
When left untreated, thrombosis can progress to a serious condition called pulmonary embolism. The clot can break off and follow the flow of the bloodstream until it lodges in the lungs. Symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath, sudden coughing, sweating, and dizziness. The condition can lead to tissue necrosis in the affected region due to interruption of blood circulation.
“10% of deaths in hospitals occur due to pulmonary embolism”, says Fábio Henrique Rossi, coordinator of the medical residency in Vascular and Endovascular Surgery at Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia in São Paulo.
Thromboembolism is the third leading cause of death in the context of cardiovascular diseases. In the Covid-19 pandemic, the number of cases of people with thrombosis increased. About 16% of patients infected with the coronavirus developed the condition.
The episode shows the case of businessman Wendolino Israel. At age 65, he had a pulmonary embolism while in the ICU, still recovering from Covid-19.
Cardiologist and full professor of the Division of Cardiology at Duke University, United States, Renato Lopes, published a study about a new protocol with the use of anticoagulants for patients hospitalized in ICUs.
“Brazil is a world reference in thrombosis treatment. Institutions are coming together for the sake of science and we are achieving results even faster than the United States and Europe. The world started to follow our results”, highlights Lopes.
the team of CNN also presents the story of publicist Beatriz Almeida. Early and prolonged use of a contraceptive led to the development of thrombosis at age 23. The young woman underwent an angioplasty procedure to place a stent in the vein and thus free up space for blood to circulate.
In the episode, experts show how the procedure is performed from another case of a patient hospitalized at Dante Pazzanese Hospital.
Source: CNN Brasil