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877 – Louis Travlos (son of Charles the Bald) is crowned king of Western Phragia.

1660 – For the first time, a female actress appears on an English stage. The actress (Margaret Hughes or Anne Marshall) plays Desdemona in William Shakespeare’s Othello.

1813 – Premiere of the 7th Agreement of Ludwig van Beethoven.

1854 – In his apostolic decree Ineffabilis Deus, Pope Pius XI proclaims the dogmatic definition of the Immaculate Conception, which claims that the Virgin Mary was arrested without original sin.

1864 – Pope Pius XI issues the circular Quanta cura which depicts the authority of the Catholic Church and condemns various liberal ideas.

1907 – Gustavus ED ascends the Swedish throne.

1912 – The leaders of the German Empire meet in an imperial war council to discuss the possibility of war.

1914 – World War I: A squadron of the British Royal Navy defeats a squadron of the German Imperial Fleet in the Battle of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic.

1941 – World War II: US President Franklin Roosevelt declares war on Japan.

1941 – World War II: Japanese forces simultaneously invade Malaysia, Thailand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, and the Dutch East Indies.

1955 – The Council of Europe adopts the European flag.

1962 – Employees of four New York newspapers (which will later grow to nine) go on strike for 114 days.

1963 – Lightning strikes Pan Am Boeing 707, which crashes in Maryland, killing all 81 people on board.

1965 – The Church of Greece objects to the removal of the aphorisms between Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras.

1966 – The Greek ship Heraklion sinks in the Aegean Sea, with a death toll of over 200.

1969 – Olympic Air Force Flight 954 crashes into a mountain outside Keratea, killing 90 people in the worst Douglas DC-6 accident in history.

1971 – Indo-Pakistani War: The Indian Navy attacks Karachi in western Pakistan.

1971 – Cardiac surgeon Georgios Tolis performs the first myocardial revascularization with a bypass venous implant at Evangelismos Hospital.

1972 – United Airlines Boeing 737 crashes after attempting to land in Chicago, killing 45 people. This is the first loss of a Boeing 737.

1974 – The Greek referendum of 1974 resulted in the abolition of the monarchy in Greece.

1980 – Former Beatle John Lennon is assassinated by Mark David Chapman in front of the Dakota Building in New York.

1987 – Cold War: US President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev sign the White House Treaty on Medium-Range Nuclear Forces.

1987 – An Israeli tanker kills four Palestinian refugees and injures seven others in a car crash on the Israeli border with the Gaza Strip. The event triggers the First Intifada.

1991 – The leaders of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus agree on the dissolution of the USSR and the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) with Minsk as its capital.

Births

65 BC – Horace, Roman poet

1542 – Maria I, Queen of Scotland

1708 – Francis I, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

1815 – Adolf von Menzel, German painter and illustrator

1832 – Biernstierne Biernson, Norwegian writer

1842 – Alphonse Borelli, French astronomer

1861 – Aristide Mayol, French sculptor and painter

1861 – Georges Melies, French director

1864 – Camille Claudel, French illustrator and sculptor

1865 – Jan Sibelius, Finnish composer

1886 – Diego Rivera, Mexican painter

1890 – Bochuslav Martinou, Czech composer

1911 – Nikos Gatsos, Greek poet and lyricist

1918 – George Sourelis, Greek writer

1929 – Gerard de Villiers, French writer

1930 – Maximilian Cell, Austrian actor and director

1936 – David Quarantine, American actor

1938 – John Koufour, Ghanaian politician

1940 – Thymios Karakatsanis, Greek actor and director

1943 – Jim Morrison, American singer (The Doors)

[1945-JohnBanvilleIrishwriterandjournalist

1950 – Ulf Eckmann, Swedish ecclesiastical leader

1953 – Kim Basinger, American actress

1959 – Jim Jong Kim, Korean physician

1962 – Marty Friedman, American guitarist (Megadeth)

1962 – Nikos Karageorgiou, Greek football player

1966 – Cindy O’Connor, Irish singer

1968 – Michael Cole, American sports commentator

1976 – Dominique Monahan, British actor

1978 – Ian Somerhalder, American actor

1982 – Nicki Minaj, singer from Trinidad

1985 – Dwight Howard, American basketball player

Deaths

899 – Arnulf of Carinthia, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

1186 – Bertolt IV, Duke of Cheeringen

1383 – Vegeslas I, Duke of Luxembourg

1521 – Christina of Saxony, Queen of Sweden, Norway and Denmark

1793 – Madame Dubary, French countess

1831 – James Hoban, Irish architect

1864 – George Bull, English mathematician and philosopher

1894 – Pafnuti Chebyshev, Russian mathematician

1903 – Herbert Spencer, English philosopher

1907 – Oscar II, King of Sweden

1955 – Hermann Weil, German mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher

1971 – Eleni Ourani, Greek poet

1975 – Gary Tein, New Zealand bassist (Uriah Heep)

1978 – Golda Meir, Israeli politician

1980 – John Lennon, English musician and singer (The Beatles)

1984 – Nicholas Dingley, Hanoi Rocks drummer

1989 – Golfo Bini, Greek actress

1994 – Semni Karouzou, Greek archaeologist

2000 – Jonathan Jonathan, Prime Minister of Tuvalu

2004 – Ioannis Boutos, Greek politician

2004 – Deibag Darrell, American guitarist (Pantera, Damageplan)

2016 – John Glenn, American astronaut and politician

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