A new report from the European Union’s climate change service, Copernicus, reinforced this Wednesday (6) that 2023 will be the hottest year on record. The global average temperature in the first 11 months of the year reached the highest level in history, being 1.46°C above the 1850-1900 average.
The temperature in the period from January to November was 0.13°C higher than the average for the same period in 2016, the hottest year on record, Copernicus reported.
November 2023 was the hottest November on record, with a global average temperature of 14.22°C, 0.85°C above the 1991-2020 November average. The temperature also surpasses the previous hottest November, in 2020, by 0.32°C.
“This year has already had six record-breaking months and two record-breaking seasons. November’s extraordinary global temperatures, including two days warmer than 2°C above pre-industrial temperatures, mean 2023 is the hottest year on record,” said Copernicus Deputy Director Samantha Burgess.
“As long as greenhouse gas concentrations continue to increase, we cannot expect results different from those observed this year. The temperature will continue to rise,” added Copernicus director Carlo Buontempo.
The European Union has one of the most ambitious environmental goals among rich countries, to reduce carbon emissions by 55% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels.
Two weeks ago, a study by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) revealed that the temperature in 2023 should be 1.4ºC above pre-industrial levels.
The main objective of the Paris agreement, signed in 2015 and signed by 196 countries, is to keep global warming well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels by the end of the century, but seeking to limit the increase to 1.5°C – a threshold that scientists say, if crossed, could have catastrophic consequences.
The WMO study stated that the 1.4ºC increase has already brought a frightening preview of what it could mean to permanently exceed 1.5ºC: Antarctic sea ice has reached its lowest maximum winter extent ever recorded; Swiss glaciers have lost 10% of their volume in the last two years; forest fires were recorded in Canada, Hawaii, in southern Europe; and storms wreaked havoc in North Africa and Brazil. These and other extreme events left thousands dead.
In November, the annual report from the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) showed that, in the most optimistic scenario, the probability of limiting warming to 1.5°C is just 14%. And if effective action is not taken, the temperature increase could reach 2.9°C above pre-industrial levels.
Scientists say that natural phenomena such as El Niño, which warms the waters of the Pacific, explain part of the disasters, but emphasize that human action makes events more extreme and frequent. And they say next year could be worse, as the impacts of El Niño will likely peak and lead to higher temperatures in 2024.
The various reports about record temperatures come at a time when leaders from around the world are meeting at COP28 in Dubai to try to reach an agreement to gradually reduce the use of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas in energy production.
*With information from Reuters
Source: CNN Brasil
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