Around 9.7 million people will die as a result of a stroke in 2050, according to estimates by the World Stroke Organization, in a article published in the scientific journal The Lancet Neurology.
The forecast represents a 50% increase compared to data from 2020, when the number of deaths per year resulting from stroke was around 6.6 million.
According to the entity, it is the second leading cause of deaths worldwide. But experts say that the damage can be reduced, mainly, with faster medical care.
“Time is of the essence in stroke treatment, as the quicker treatment is started, the better the chances of recovery and minimizing brain damage. Calling the emergency services and informing them that you suspect a stroke is the most recommended”, advises neurologist and researcher at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein Gisele Sampaio.
For treatment to occur quickly, the first step is knowing how to recognize the symptoms. According to information from the Ministry of Health, the following are signs of stroke:
- Weakness or tingling in the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body;
- Mental confusion;
- Change in speech or understanding;
- Change in vision (in one or both eyes);
- Change in balance, coordination, dizziness or change in gait;
- Sudden, intense headache with no apparent cause.
The neurologist explains that when these symptoms appear, the stroke is already underway. The patient must then be taken immediately to a hospital. If necessary, it is possible to call the Medical Assistance Service of Urgency (Samu – 192) or the Firefighters (193) .
Stroke occurs as a result of changes in blood flow to the brain, due to blockage or rupture of the vessels that perform this function.
The situation can occur in two ways, according to information from the Ministry of Health:
Ischemic stroke or cerebral infarction: It is the most common subtype, responsible for 80% of stroke cases. It occurs due to clogging of cerebral vessels, due to thrombosis (formation of plaques in a main artery of the brain) or embolism (when a thrombus or fatty plaque originating from another part of the body breaks loose and reaches the cerebral vessels through the blood network). .
Hemorrhagic stroke: Less common, it is the most serious subtype of stroke, with high mortality rates. It happens when blood vessels rupture. When the rupture occurs inside the brain, it results in intracerebral hemorrhage. In other cases, subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs, with bleeding between the brain and the arachnoid (one of the membranes that make up the meninges).
How to treat stroke?
According to neurosurgeon and specialist in cerebrovascular diseases Victor Hugo Espíndola, there are two types of treatment available for this condition.
“Umy medication qthat we do in vein, but only up to 4 and a half hours of symptoms can be taken; and the catheterization, which we reserve for the most serious cases. ANDThis treatment can treat symptoms for up to 24 hours, but ideally it should be done within the first 6 hours”, he explains..
Another important part of treatment is patient rehabilitation. According to Health, the objective is for the person to “reestablish their mobility, functional abilities and physical and mental independence”.
The doctor emphasizes that prior care is also essential. “As people he has need to be aware that up to 80% of strokes can be avoided, and we achieve this with good habilife tones: ccontrolling blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, avoiding sedentary lifestyle and stopping smoking, for example.”
Source: CNN Brasil
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