Diabetes and hypertension are the major health risk factors in Brazil. The alert was made by the Ministry of Health, on Tuesday (22), based on the results of the Surveillance of Risk Factors and Protection for Chronic Diseases (Vigitel).
The Ministry of Health publication presents estimates on the frequency and sociodemographic distribution of diseases in the capitals of the 26 Brazilian states and in the Federal District, between 2006 and 2020.
In addition to presenting indicators related to diseases and health self-assessment, the survey allows the implementation and monitoring of public policies for the reduction and control of chronic non-communicable diseases.
In this Wednesday’s edition (23) of the Medical Correspondentfrom Novo Dia, neurosurgeon Fernando Gomes explained the main complications associated with diabetes.
The disease is caused by a failure in the production of insulin by the pancreas or the difficulty in using the insulin produced by the body.
“We have an organ inside the abdominal cavity called the pancreas, which has the function of producing a hormone called insulin. In cells, insulin influences the entry of glucose. So, you eat, ingest the nutrients that are absorbed in the digestive tract, and in the bloodstream you have glucose, which enters the various cells of the body through the work of this hormone”, explains Gomes.
The increase in blood glucose can cause damage to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves, as well as increasing the risk of developing cardiovascular diseasesuch as acute myocardial infarction and vascular effusions.
“Long-term untreated diabetes can cause harm to the body, such as retinal problems, heart and brain related problems. In the long term, even amputations can happen,” she said.
One of the reference values that indicates the development of the disease is the result of the glycated hemoglobin testable to measure blood sugar levels also called the glycemic index.
“The normal rate of glycated hemoglobin is up to 5.7% of total hemoglobin, the molecule that carries oxygen in the blood. Values between 5.7% and 6.5% the individual is considered to have prediabetes. Above 6.5% is considered a condition of diabetes”, explains Domingos Malerbi, president of the Diabetes Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabology (SBEM).
Different types of diabetes
Diabetes is classified into different types (1 and 2), according to the form of the disease.
The most common is type 2, which comprises about 90 to 95% of cases. The disease is characterized by malabsorption of insulin produced by the pancreas, which leads to difficulty keeping blood sugar at normal levels.
The development of type 1 diabetes is related to the permanent destruction of most of the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin by the patient’s own immune system. When this happens, the body produces little or no insulin. In general, type 1 affects children, adolescents and young adults.
How to prevent diabetes
As in the case of hypertension, behavioral factors play an important role in the onset of diabetes. Neurosurgeon Fernando Gomes warns that adopting healthy habits can help prevent the disease.
Eating vegetables daily, reducing the consumption of salt, sugar and fats, quitting smoking, keeping your weight under control and exercising regularly are the most effective ways to fight the disease.
Source: CNN Brasil